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First stage lint cleaning system PM(2.5) emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM(10) and PM(2.5) sizing cyclones

Whitelock, Derek P., Buser, Michael D., Boykin, J. Clif, Holt, Gregory A.
Journal of Cotton Science 2013 v.17 no.4 pp. 368-379
air flow, cleaning, cotton gin, cyclone separators, emissions factor, exhaust systems, industry, lint cotton, particulate emissions, particulates
This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, EPA finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM(2.5)). This created an urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues, because current EPA AP-42 cotton gin PM(2.5) emission factors did not exist. The objective of this study was the development of PM2.5 emission factors for cotton gin 1st stage lint cleaning systems based on the EPA approved stack sampling methodology, Method 201A. The project plan included sampling seven cotton gins across the cotton belt. Key factors for selecting specific cotton gins included: 1) facility location (geographically diverse), 2) industry representative production capacity, 3) typical processing systems, and 4) equipped with properly designed and maintained 1D3D cyclones. Four of the seven gins had 1st stage lint cleaning systems with exhaust airstreams that were not combined with 2nd stage lint cleaning systems. In terms of capacity, the four gins were typical of the industry, averaging 27.8 bales/h during testing. Some test runs were excluded from the test averages because they failed to meet EPA Method 201A test criteria. Also, other test runs included in the analyses had cotton lint fibers that collected in the ≤ 10 μm and/or ≤ 2.5 μm samples. This larger lint material can impact the reported emissions data, but EPA Method 201A does not suggest methods to account for these anomalies. Average measured 1st stage lint cleaning system PM(2.5) emission factor based on the four tests (10 total test runs) was 0.0086 kg/227-kg bale (0.019 lb/500-lb bale). The 1st stage lint cleaning system average emission factors for PM(10) and total particulate were 0.054 kg/bale (0.118 lb/bale) and 0.109 kg/bale (0.240 lb/bale), respectively. The 1st stage lint cleaning system PM(2.5) emission rate from test averages ranged from 0.066 to 0.78 kg/h (0.15-1.72 lb/h). System average PM(10) and total particulate emission factors were lower than those currently published in EPA AP-42. The ratios of 1st stage lint cleaning system PM(2.5) to total particulate, PM(2.5) to PM(10), and PM(10) to total particulate were 7.9, 16.1, and 49.1%, respectively.