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Mote Cyclone Robber System PM(2.5) Emission Factors and Rates for Cotton Gins: Method 201A Combination PM(10) and PM(2.5) Sizing Cyclones

Buser, Michael D., Whitelock, Derek P., Boykin, J. Clif, Holt, Gregory A.
Journal of Cotton Science 2013 v.17 no.4 pp. 468-478
United States Environmental Protection Agency, cotton gin, cyclone separators, emissions factor, lint cotton, particulate emissions, particulates, reference standards
This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM(2.5)). This created an urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues, because current EPA AP-42 cotton gin PM(2.5) emission factors did not exist. The objective of this study is the development of PM2.5 emission factors for cotton gin mote cyclone robber systems based on the EPA-approved stack sampling methodology, Method 201A. The project plan included sampling seven cotton gins across the Cotton Belt. Three of the seven gins had mote cyclone robber systems. In terms of capacity, the three gins were typical of the industry, averaging 24.8 bales/h during testing. Some test runs were excluded from the test averages because they failed to meet EPA Method 201A Test criteria. Also, other test runs, included in the analyses, had cotton lint fibers that collected in the ≤ 10 μm and/or ≤ 2.5 μm samples. This larger lint material can impact the reported emissions data, but EPA Method 201A does not suggest methods to account for these anomalies. Average measured mote cyclone robber system PM(2.5) emission factor based on the three tests (five total test runs) was 0.0044 kg/227-kg bale (0.010 lb/500-lb bale). The mote cyclone robber system emission factors for PM(10) and total particulate were 0.010 kg/bale (0.023 lb/bale) and 0.040 kg/bale (0.087 lb/bale), respectively. The mote cyclone robber system PM(2.5) emission rate from test averages ranged from 0.038 to 0.24 kg/h (0.084-0.53 lb/h). System average PM(10) and total particulate emission factors were lower than those currently published in EPA AP-42 for a similar system. The ratios of mote cyclone robber system PM(2.5) to total particulate, PM(2.5) to PM(10), and PM(10) to total particulate were 11.1, 42.5, and 26.2%, respectively.