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Fate of mycotoxins in two popular traditional cereal-based beverages (kunu-zaki and pito) from rural Nigeria
- Ezekiel, Chibundu N., Abia, Wilfred A., Ogara, Isaac M., Sulyok, Michael, Warth, Benedikt, Krska, Rudolf
- Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + [i.e. und] Technologie 2015 v.60 no.1 pp. 137-141
- beverages, deoxynivalenol, fumonisin B1, fungi, grains, ingredients, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, metabolites, zearalenone, Nigeria
- Mycotoxins frequently contaminate cereals and their fermented products, however, the carry–over profiles and concentrations of mycotoxins in the final product depend on the processing techniques employed. Therefore, the fate of mycotoxins in two popularly consumed Nigerian cereal-based beverages, kunu-zaki and pito, were studied using the raw cereals, their malted forms and the final drinks. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric analysis revealed 24 and 33 fungal metabolites in kunu-zaki and pito respectively, and their cereal inputs. Among the metabolites were 12 mycotoxins (alternariol, alternariolmethylether, beauvericin, deoxynivalenol, enniatin A and B, fumonisin B1 (FB1), FB2 and FB3, fusaproliferin, moniliformin and zearalenone). Mycotoxin levels were higher in the maize-based kunu-zaki (<LOQ–123 μg/kg) and its cereal ingredients (0.1–31,200 μg/kg) than in the sorghum-based pito (<LOQ–5 μg/kg) and its cereal base (1.2–85 μg/kg) respectively. Processing drastically reduced concentrations of all mycotoxins in kunu-zaki (range: 76.2–99.9%) and pito (59.3–94.8%). Both drinks therefore represent a safe food in the local setting.