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Combined effects of temperature and pyriproxyfen stress in a full life‐cycle test with Chironomus riparius (Insecta)

Tassou, Koffi Tcha, Schulz, Ralf
Environmental toxicology and chemistry 2012 v.31 no.10 pp. 2384-2390
Chironomus riparius, chemical treatment, chronic toxicity, climate, foods, guidelines, insect growth regulators, larvae, pollutants, pyriproxyfen, risk assessment, temperature, toxicity testing
Traditional risk assessment guidelines employ acute or chronic toxicity tests for a maximum of one generation of organisms. These tests are usually performed in the laboratory at a constant standard temperature, although in the field organisms may experience different temperatures, which may be a source of additional stress. Climate change–related temperature shifts may have serious impacts on ectotherm populations that are key components of the aquatic food chains, particularly in combination with the exposure of pollutants affecting their development. Here, a chronic full life‐cycle test with Chironomus riparius from the first‐instar larvae in the parental (P) generation until emergence in the subsequent F1 generation was conducted at different temperatures (16 and 24°C), testing the effect of the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen at 1, 3, 10, 30, and 100 µg/L. The emergence ratios were significantly affected by the interaction of temperature, chemical treatment, and generation, showing that, at lower temperatures, the negative effects of pyriproxyfen exposure were significantly greater in the F1 generation than in the P generation. The development rate showed that the effects of the interactions were significant in the F1 generation, underscoring the importance of extended exposure as a useful amendment to the risk assessment of those agrochemicals potentially influencing developmental and reproductive parameters in intact organisms. Moreover, results demonstrated that any difference from the standard temperature of 20°C might result in additional stress, leading to disruption of biological functions in C. riparius, highlighting the interaction among different global climate change‐related variables. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2012; 31: 2384–2390. © 2012 SETAC