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Toxicodynamic mechanisms and monitoring of acaricide resistance in the two-spotted spider mite
- Kwon, Deok Ho, Clark, J. Marshall, Lee, Si Hyeock
- Pesticide biochemistry and physiology 2015 v.121 pp. 97-101
- Araneae, Tetranychus urticae, acaricide resistance, acaricides, bioassays, gene frequency, genes, genetic markers, genetic resistance, genotyping, glass, monitoring, mutation, pests, prediction, sequence analysis
- The two-spotted spider (Tetranychus urticae) is one of the most serious pests world-wide and has developed resistance to many types of acaricides. Various mutations on acaricide target site genes have been determined to be responsible for toxicodynamic resistance, and the genotyping and frequency prediction of these mutations can be employed as an alternative resistance monitoring strategy. A quantitative sequencing (QS) protocol was reported as a population-based genotyping technique, and applied for the determination of resistance allele frequencies in T. urticae field populations. In addition, a modified glass vial bioassay method (residual contact vial bioassay, RCV) was implemented as a rapid on-site resistance monitoring tool. The QS protocol, together with the RCV, would greatly facilitate monitoring of T. urticae resistance. Recent completion of T. urticae genome analysis should facilitate the identification of additional resistance genetic markers that can be employed for molecular resistance monitoring.