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A comparative study on toxicity induced by carbosulfan and malathion in Wistar rat liver and spleen

El-Bini Dhouib, Ines, Lasram, Mohamed Montassar, Annabi, Alya, Gharbi, Najoua, El-Fazaa, Saloua
Pesticide biochemistry and physiology 2015 v.124 pp. 21-28
alanine transaminase, carbosulfan, human health, humans, immunomodulators, inflammation, interleukin-4, lipid peroxidation, liver, liver cirrhosis, lymphocyte count, malathion, oxidative stress, rats, spleen, splenocytes, subchronic exposure, toxicity
Organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate (CM) pesticides are widely used in agriculture. These pesticides are highly toxic to humans and their residues in food pose potential threat to human health. In this comparative study, we investigated the effect of subchronic exposure of OPs (malathion, MAL) and CM (Carbosulfan, CB) on rat liver and spleen. Biochemical analysis showed that levels of hepatic enzymes (ALT, ALP, LDH and PAL) changed after exposure to the pesticides. In the liver extracts, lipid peroxidation index increased after the treatment by pesticides. Our results indicated that exposure to MAL and CB leads to alteration of liver redox status. Both pesticides induced focal inflammation and fibrosis in the liver. After subchronic administration of MAL (200 mg/kg) and CB (25 mg/kg), systemic inflammation, as depicted by the increase in IFN-δ activity in liver, was observed in both malathion and carbosulfan treated animals. In addition, the results showed that MAL significantly increased TCD4+ and TCD8+ lymphocyte number. It also decreased INF-δ and IL-4 production. However, CB induced a reduction of TCD8+ number and cytokine production in spleen cells. In conclusion, malathion and carbosulfan had significant immunomodulatory properties in the spleen with inflammation and oxidative stress induction in the liver.