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Genetic structure of island populations of Prunus lannesiana var. speciosa revealed by chloroplast DNA, AFLP and nuclear SSR loci analyses

Kato, Shuri, Iwata, Hiroyoshi, Tsumura, Yoshihiko, Mukai, Yuzuru
Journal of plant research 2011 v.124 no.1 pp. 11-23
Prunus, alleles, amplified fragment length polymorphism, cherries, chloroplast DNA, genetic markers, genetic relationships, genetic variance, genetic variation, haplotypes, introgression, islands, loci, microsatellite repeats, trees, variance, wild flowers, Japan
The wild flowering cherry Prunus lannesiana var. speciosa is highly geographically restricted, being confined to the Izu Islands and neighboring peninsulas in Japan. In an attempt to elucidate how populations of this species have established we investigated the genetic diversity and differentiation in seven populations (sampling 408 individuals in total), using three kinds of genetic markers: chloroplast DNA (cpDNA), amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), and 11 nuclear SSR polymorphic loci. Eight haplotypes were identified based on the cpDNA sequence variations, 64 polymorphic fragments were scored for the AFLP markers, and a total of 154 alleles were detected at the 11 nuclear SSR loci. Analysis of molecular variance showed that among-population variation accounted for 16.55, 15.04 and 7.45% of the total detected variation at the cpDNA, AFLPs, and SSR loci, respectively. Thus, variation within populations accounted for most of the genetic variance for all types of markers, although the genetic differentiation among populations was also highly significant. For cpDNA variation, no clear structure was found among the populations, except that of the most distant island, although an “isolation by distance” pattern was found for each marker. Both neighbor-joining trees and structure analysis indicate that the genetic relationships between populations reflect geological variations between the peninsula and the islands and among the islands. Furthermore, hybridization with related species may have affected the genetic structure, and some genetic introgression is likely to have occurred.