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Transcription profiling of interactions between Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris SK11 and Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334 during Cheddar cheese simulation

Desfossés-Foucault, Émilie, LaPointe, Gisèle, Roy, Denis
International journal of food microbiology 2014 v.178 pp. 76-86
Cheddar cheese, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, cheese ripening, factor analysis, flavor, gene overexpression, genes, lactic acid bacteria, mixed culture, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, slurries, starter cultures, transcription (genetics)
The starter cultures (Lactococcus sp.) and non-starter lactic acid bacteria (mostly Lactobacillus spp.) are essential to flavor development of Cheddar cheese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the transcriptional interaction between Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris SK11 and Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334 in mixed cultures during simulated Cheddar cheese manufacture (Pearce activity test) and ripening (slurry). Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to quantify the expression of 34 genes common to both bacteria and for eight genes specific to either L. lactis subsp. cremoris SK11 or L. paracasei ATCC 334. The multifactorial analysis (MFA) performed on fold change results for each gene revealed that the genes linked to stress, protein and peptide degradation as well as carbohydrate metabolism of L. paracasei ATCC 334 were especially overexpressed in mixed culture with L. lactis subsp. cremoris SK11 during the ripening simulation. For L. lactis subsp. cremoris SK11, genes coding for amino acid metabolism were more expressed during the cheese manufacture simulation, especially in single culture. These results show how complementary functions of starter and NSLAB contribute to activities useful for flavor development.