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Determination of which virus to use as a process control when testing for the presence of hepatitis A virus and norovirus in food and water
- Hennechart-Collette, Catherine, Martin-Latil, Sandra, Guillier, Laurent, Perelle, Sylvie
- International journal of food microbiology 2015 v.202 pp. 57-65
- Encephalomyocarditis virus, Hepatitis A virus, Norovirus, bottled water, food choices, food matrix, foodborne illness, genome, lettuce, mice, physicochemical properties, process control, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, tomatoes, virology, viruses, water pollution
- Noroviruses (genogroup I (NoV GI) and genogroup II (NoV GII)) and the hepatitis A virus (HAV) are frequently involved in foodborne infections worldwide. They are mainly transmitted via the fecal–oral route, direct person-to-person contact or consumption of contaminated water and foods. In food virology, detection methods are currently based on identifying viral genomes using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR). One of the general requirements for detecting these viruses in food involves the use of a process control virus to monitor the quality of the entire viral extraction procedure as described in the ISO/TS 15216-1 and 15216-2 standards published in 2013. The selected process control virus should have similar morphological and physicochemical properties as the screened pathogenic virus and thus have the potential to provide comparable extraction efficiency.The aim of this study was to determine which virus should be used for process control, murine norovirus (MNV-1) or Mengovirus, when testing for the presence of HAV, NoV GI and NoV GII in bottled water, lettuce and semi-dried tomatoes. Food samples were spiked with HAV, NoV GI or NoV GII alone or in the presence of MNV-1 or Mengovirus. Recovery rates of each pathogenic virus were compared to those of both process control viruses using a multiple comparison procedure. Neither process control virus influenced the recovery of pathogenic virus regardless of the type of food matrix. MNV-1 was the most appropriate virus for validating the detection of HAV and NoV GII in all three food matrices as well as NoV GI in lettuce. Mengovirus proved to be the most appropriate control for NoV GI detection in bottled water and semi-dried tomatoes.The process control virus is essential for validating viral detection in food and the choice of virus depends on food type and the screened pathogenic virus.