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A Semisynthetic Strategy Leads to Alteration of the Backbone Amidate Ligand in the NiSOD Active Site
- Campeciño, Julius
O., Dudycz, Lech W., Tumelty, David, Berg, Volker, Cabelli, Diane E., Maroney, Michael J.
- Journal of the American Chemical Society 2015 v.137 no.28 pp. 9044-9052
- X-ray absorption spectroscopy, absorption, active sites, catalytic activity, cysteine, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, histidine, ligands, models, nickel, oxidation, prediction, spectral analysis, superoxide dismutase
- Computational investigations have implicated the amidate ligand in nickel superoxide dismutase (NiSOD) in stabilizing Ni-centered redox catalysis and in preventing cysteine thiolate ligand oxidation. To test these predictions, we have used an experimental approach utilizing a semisynthetic scheme that employs native chemical ligation of a pentapeptide (HCDLP) to recombinant S. coelicolor NiSOD lacking these N-terminal residues, NΔ5-NiSOD. Wild-type enzyme produced in this manner exhibits the characteristic spectral properties of recombinant WT-NiSOD and is as catalytically active. The semisynthetic scheme was also employed to construct a variant where the amidate ligand was converted to a secondary amine, H1*-NiSOD, a novel strategy that retains a backbone N-donor atom. The H1*-NiSOD variant was found to have only ∼1% of the catalytic activity of the recombinant wild-type enzyme, and had altered spectroscopic properties. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals a four-coordinate planar site with N₂S₂-donor ligands, consistent with electronic absorption spectroscopic results indicating that the Ni center in H1*-NiSOD is mostly reduced in the as-isolated sample, as opposed to 50:50 Ni(II)/Ni(III) mixture that is typical for the recombinant wild-type enzyme. The EPR spectrum of as-isolated H1*-NiSOD accounts for ∼11% of the Ni in the sample and is similar to WT-NiSOD, but more axial, with gz < gₓ,y. ¹⁴N-hyperfine is observed on gz, confirming the addition of the apical histidine ligand in the Ni(III) complex. The altered electronic properties and implications for redox catalysis are discussed in light of predictions based on synthetic and computational models.