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Molecular-Level Insight into the Differential Oxidase and Oxygenase Reactivities of de Novo Due Ferri Proteins

Snyder, Rae Ana, Butch, Susan E., Reig, Amanda J., DeGrado, William F., Solomon, Edward I.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 2015 v.137 no.29 pp. 9302-9314
aminophenols, benzoquinones, circular dichroism spectroscopy, histidine, hydrogen peroxide, iron, oxygen, proteins, superoxide anion
Using the single-chain due ferri (DFsc) peptide scaffold, the differential oxidase and oxygenase reactivities of two 4A→4G variants, one with two histidines at the diiron center (G4DFsc) and the other with three histidines (3His-G4DFsc(Mut3)), are explored. By controlling the reaction conditions, the active form responsible for 4-aminophenol (4-AP) oxidase activity in both G4DFsc and 3His-G4DFsc(Mut3) is determined to be the substrate-bound biferrous site. Using circular dichroism (CD), magnetic CD (MCD), and variable-temperature, variable-field (VTVH) MCD spectroscopies, 4-AP is found to bind directly to the biferrous sites of the DF proteins. In G4DFsc, 4-AP increases the coordination of the biferrous site, while in 3His-G4DFsc(Mut3), the coordination number remains the same and the substrate likely replaces the additional bound histidine. This substrate binding enables a two-electron process where 4-AP is oxidized to benzoquinone imine and O₂ is reduced to H₂O₂. In contrast, only the biferrous 3His variant is found to be active in the oxygenation of p-anisidine to 4-nitroso-methoxybenzene. From CD, MCD, and VTVH MCD, p-anisidine addition is found to minimally perturb the biferrous centers of both G4DFsc and 3His-G4DFsc(Mut3), indicating that this substrate binds near the biferrous site. In 3His-G4DFsc(Mut3), the coordinative saturation of one iron leads to the two-electron reduction of O₂ at the second iron to generate an end-on hydroperoxo-Fe(III) active oxygenating species.