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ACC deaminase-containing Arthrobacter protophormiae induces NaCl stress tolerance through reduced ACC oxidase activity and ethylene production resulting in improved nodulation and mycorrhization in Pisum sativum

Barnawal, Deepti, Bharti, Nidhi, Maji, Deepamala, Chanotiya, Chandan Singh, Kalra, Alok
Journal of plant physiology 2014 v.171 no.11 pp. 884-894
1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase, Arthrobacter protophormiae, Glomus mosseae, Pisum sativum, Rhizobium leguminosarum, aminocyclopropanecarboxylate oxidase, beneficial microorganisms, ethylene, ethylene production, lipid peroxidation, mycorrhizae, nodulation, nutrient uptake, peas, phytomass, plant growth, poisonous plants, proline, rhizosphere bacteria, salinity, salt stress, salt tolerance, sodium chloride, stress tolerance
Induction of stress ethylene production in the plant system is one of the consequences of salt stress which apart from being toxic to the plant also inhibits mycorrhizal colonization and rhizobial nodulation by oxidative damage. Tolerance to salinity in pea plants was assessed by reducing stress ethylene levels through ACC deaminase-containing rhizobacteria Arthrobacter protophormiae (SA3) and promoting plant growth through improved colonization of beneficial microbes like Rhizobium leguminosarum (R) and Glomus mosseae (G). The experiment comprised of treatments with combinations of SA3, G, and R under varying levels of salinity. The drop in plant biomass associated with salinity stress was significantly lesser in SA3 treated plants compared to non-treated plants. The triple interaction of SA3+G+R performed synergistically to induce protective mechanism against salt stress and showed a new perspective of plant-microorganism interaction. This tripartite collaboration increased plant weight by 53%, reduced proline content, lipid peroxidation and increased pigment content under 200mM salt condition. We detected that decreased ACC oxidase (ACO) activity induced by SA3 and reduced ACC synthase (ACS) activity in AMF (an observation not reported earlier as per our knowledge) inoculated plants simultaneously reduced the ACC content by 60% (responsible for generation of stress ethylene) in SA3+G+R treated plants as compared to uninoculated control plants under 200mM salt treatment. The results indicated that ACC deaminase-containing SA3 brought a putative protection mechanism (decrease in ACC content) under salt stress, apart from alleviating ethylene-induced damage, by enhancing nodulation and AMF colonization in the plants resulting in improved nutrient uptake and plant growth.