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Early detection and visualization of human adenovirus serotype 5-viral vectors carrying foot-and-mouth disease virus or luciferase transgenes in cell lines and bovine tissues

Montiel, Nestor, Smoliga, George, Arzt, Jonathan
Vaccine 2012 v.30 no.9 pp. 1690
DNA, Foot-and-mouth disease virus, Human adenovirus C, antigen presentation, cattle, cell lines, dendritic cells, gene expression, genetic vectors, humans, immune response, infection, injection site, luciferase, lymph nodes, messenger RNA, proteins, serotypes, transgenes, tropisms, vaccines, viruses
Recombinant replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vaccines containing capsid-coding regions from foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) have been demonstrated to induce effective immune responses and provide homologous protective immunity against FMDV in cattle. However, basic mechanisms of Ad5-FMDV vaccine function including virus tropism, transgene expression, and antigen presentation, remain incompletely understood. The current study characterized the dynamics of Ad5 viral vector (Ad5-FMDV-A24 and Ad5-luciferase) infection in cell lines and early post-inoculation vector–host interactions in cattle. Adenovirus dissemination was described utilizing novel rPCR, rRT-PCR, luminometry, and immunomicroscopy techniques. In vitro infection of human and bovine cells with both Ad5 vectors resulted in dose-dependent detection of vector DNA, mature mRNA transcripts, and transgene-encoded proteins. Subsequent to intramuscular inoculation of cattle, Ad5 and transgene products were detected at the injection sites of all animals at all time-points examined (6, 24, and 48hpi). Microscopically, injection sites were characterized by marked infiltrates of interstitium consisting of predominantly large mononuclear cells. Immunomicroscopy indicated these cells infrequently contained adenovirus and/or transgenic proteins and were phenotypically consistent with antigen-presenting cells (macrophages and dendritic cells). Vector DNA and mature mRNA transcripts were first detected at the draining and local lymph nodes as early as 6hpi and systemically at 24hpi. These results provide novel insights for understanding Ad5-mediated immunity against FMDV using novel techniques that will contribute to ongoing efforts for the improvement of future Ad-FMDV vaccine platforms.