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Safety of dietary conjugated α-linolenic acid (CLNA) in a neonatal pig model

Castellano, Christian-Alexandre, Plourde, Mélanie, Briand, Sandie I., Angers, Paul, Giguère, Alain, Matte, J. Jacques
Food and chemical toxicology 2014 v.64 pp. 119-125
alpha-linolenic acid, animal models, blood, brain, carcass composition, cholesterol, clinical trials, conjugated linoleic acid, creatinine, dietary fat, dietary supplements, electrolytes, enzymes, food intake, glucose, heart, isomers, liver, omega-3 fatty acids, omega-6 fatty acids, piglets, tissue weight, tissues, toxicology, triacylglycerols, urea nitrogen
The aim of the present study was to perform a short-term safety evaluation of dietary mono-conjugated α-linolenic acid isomers (CLNA; c9-t11-c15-18:3+c9-t13-c15-18:3) using a neonatal pig model. CLNA diet was compared with three other dietary fats: (1) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; c9-t11-18:2+t10-c12-18:2), (2) non-conjugated n-3 PUFA and (3) n-6 PUFA. Thirty-two piglets weaned at 3weeks of age were distributed into four dietary groups. Diets were isoenergetic and food intake was controlled by a gastric tube. Mono-CLNA diet did not significantly change body or organ weight, carcass composition and most biochemical parameters including; glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, hepatic enzymes and electrolytes levels in blood (P⩾0.09). Conversely, the n-3 PUFA composition of the brain, liver and heart decreased by 6–21% in the CLNA-fed group compared to animals fed nonconjugated n-3 PUFA (P<0.01). Responses to dietary treatments were tissue-specific, with the liver and the brain being the most deprived in n-3 PUFA. Our results support that short-term intake of mono-CLNA is safe in neonatal pigs but n-3 PUFA reduction in tissues deserves to be further investigated before using long-term nutritional supplementation in pigs and other animal models and before moving to clinical trials.