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Genotoxicity study of silver nanoparticles in bone marrow cells of Sprague–Dawley rats

Patlolla, Anita K., Hackett, Diahanna, Tchounwou, Paul B.
Food and chemical toxicology 2015 v.85 pp. 52-60
DNA, DNA damage, adverse effects, anti-infective properties, bone marrow, bone marrow cells, chromosome aberrations, genotoxicity, health services, males, mitosis, nanosilver, oral administration, oxidative stress, rats, reactive oxygen species, toxicology
The antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) have resulted in their extensive application in consumer and health care products. Although Ag-NPs have great potential benefits, their side effects are unknown and seem inevitable due to their ability to reach the nucleus and damage genetic material. This study aimed to determine genotoxic potential of Ag-NPs using mitotic index (MI), DNA damage (comet assay), structural chromosome aberrations (SCA), micronuclei (MN) formation as genetic endpoints and induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as oxidative stress endpoint in bone marrow of Sprague–Dawley rats. Four groups of five male rats were orally administered Ag-NPs, once a day for five days with doses of 5, 25, 50, 100, mg/Kg. A control group was also made of five rats. Bone marrow samples were collected 24 h after the last treatment following standard protocols. Ag-NPs exposure significantly increased (p < 0.05) the induction of ROS, number of SCA, the frequency of micro-nucleated cells, damaged the DNA and decreased the mitotic index compared to negative control. The results suggest that Ag-NPs may have the potential to induce oxidative stress mediated genotoxicity in rats. Further characterization of their genotoxicity and also their potential health implications should be monitored regularly.