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Lineage-related and particle size-dependent cytotoxicity of chitosan nanoparticles on mouse bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

Omar Zaki, Siti Sarah, Katas, Haliza, Hamid, Zariyantey Abd
Food and chemical toxicology 2015 v.85 pp. 31-44
chitosan, cytotoxicity, flow cytometry, mice, nanoparticles, particle size, stem cells, surface antigens, toxicology, viability
Chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) have potential applications in stem cell research. In this study, ex vivo cytotoxicity of CSNPs on mouse bone marrow-derived (MBMCs) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) was determined. MBMCs were exposed to CSNPs of different particle sizes at various concentrations for up to 72 h. Cytotoxicity effect of CSNPs on MBMCs was determined using MTT, Live/Dead Viability/Cytotoxicity assays and flow cytometry analysis of surface antigens on HSCs (Sca-1+), myeloid-committed progenitors (CD11b+, Gr-1+), and lymphoid-committed progenitors (CD45+, CD3e+). At 24 h incubation, MBMCs' viability was not affected by CSNPs. At 48 and 72 h, significant reduction was detected at higher CSNPs concentrations. Small CSNPs (200 nm) significantly reduced MBMCs' viability while medium-sized particle (∼400 nm) selectively promoted MBMCs growth. Surface antigen assessment demonstrated lineage-dependent effect. Significant decrease in Sca-1+ cells percentage was observed for medium-sized particle at the lowest CSNPs concentration. Meanwhile, reduction of CD11b+ and Gr-1+ cells percentage was detected at high and intermediate concentrations of medium-sized and large CSNPs. Percentage of CD45+ and CD3e+ cells along with ROS levels were not significantly affected by CSNPs. In conclusion, medium-sized and large CSNPs were relatively non-toxic at lower concentrations. However, further investigations are necessary for therapeutic applications.