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Inhalation of titanium dioxide induces endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated autophagy and inflammation in mice

Yu, Kyeong-Nam, Sung, Jae Hyuck, Lee, Somin, Kim, Ji-Eun, Kim, Sanghwa, Cho, Won-Young, Lee, Ah Young, Park, Soo Jin, Lim, Joohyun, Park, Changhoon, Chae, Chanhee, Lee, Jin Kyu, Lee, Jinkyu, Kim, Jun-Sung, Cho, Myung-Haing
Food and chemical toxicology 2015 v.85 pp. 106-113
autophagy, breathing, dose response, drug delivery systems, electronics, endoplasmic reticulum, hyperplasia, inflammation, mice, mitochondria, nanoparticles, primary contact, respiratory system, risk, sunscreens, titanium dioxide, toxicity, toxicology, transmission electron microscopy, working conditions
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are widely used in cosmetics, sunscreen, electronics, drug delivery systems, and diverse bio-application fields. In the workplace, the primary exposure route for TiO2 nanoparticles is inhalation through the respiratory system. Because TiO2 nanoparticles have different physiological properties, in terms of size and bioactivity, their toxic effects in the respiratory system must be determined. In this study, to determine the toxic effect of inhaled TiO2 nanoparticles in the lung and the underlying mechanism, we used a whole-body chamber inhalation system to expose A/J mice to TiO2 nanoparticles for 28 days. During the experiments, the inhaled TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized using a cascade impactor and transmission electron microscopy. After inhalation of the TiO2 nanoparticles, hyperplasia and inflammation were observed in a TiO2 dose-dependent manner. To determine the biological mechanism of the toxic response in the lung, we examined endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria in lung. The ER and mitochondria were disrupted and dysfunctional in the TiO2-exposed lung leading to abnormal autophagy. In summary, we assessed the potential risk of TiO2 nanoparticles in the respiratory system, which contributed to our understanding of the mechanism underlining TiO2 nanoparticle toxicity in the lung.