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Emergence patterns of univoltine and bivoltine Ips typographus (L.) populations and associated natural enemies
- Wermelinger, B., Epper, C., Kenis, M., Ghosh, S., Holdenrieder, O.
- Journal of applied entomology 2012 v.136 no.3 pp. 212-224
- Diptera, Ips typographus, bark, bark beetles, control methods, cutting, felling, heat, hosts, natural enemies, overwintering, parasitoids, predators, sanitation, spring, trees, univoltine habit, winter
- Control measures aiming at reducing bark beetle populations and preserving their natural enemies require a sound knowledge on their overwintering and emergence behaviour. These behavioural traits were investigated in univoltine and bivoltine populations of the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus [L.], Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and its predators and parasitoids over several consecutive years. In univoltine populations, roughly 50% of the bark beetles left their brood trees in fall together with most parasitoids and some significant predatory flies and beetles. In bivoltine populations, <10% of the second bark beetle generation emerged in fall and the remainder overwintered under the bark of their brood trees. Likewise, most predatory beetles and flies spent wintertime with their prey under the bark, while most parasitic wasps emerged in fall. The spring emergence of bivoltine predatory beetles was found to occur up to 3 weeks earlier than that of I. typographus, while that of the predatory flies and the parasitoids was delayed by up to 1 month. In univoltine populations, the bark beetles emerged several weeks prior to most antagonistic taxa. In the heat year 2003, three I. typographus generations were produced at the lower location, 36% of the third generation emerged in fall, while the proportions of overwintering predators remained largely the same as in previous years. Similar to their host, more parasitoids left their brood trees in fall after warm years. The results show that sanitation felling during winter probably kills most bark beetles in bivoltine populations, but also eliminates many natural enemies. In univoltine populations, sanitation felling might be less detrimental to both I. typographus and natural enemies because a fair fraction of their populations will already have left the trees before cutting. Warmer climates may affect the interactions of bark beetles and natural enemies and thus the impact of control measures.