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Characteristic fingerprint based on gingerol derivative analysis for discrimination of ginger (Zingiber officinale) according to geographical origin using HPLC-DAD combined with chemometrics

Yudthavorasit, Soparat, Wongravee, Kanet, Leepipatpiboon, Natchanun
Food chemistry 2014 v.158 pp. 101-111
Zingiber officinale, active ingredients, chemometrics, cluster analysis, discriminant analysis, ginger, high performance liquid chromatography, mathematical models, principal component analysis, product authenticity, provenance, quality control, China, India, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam
Chromatographic fingerprints of gingers from five different ginger-producing countries (China, India, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam) were newly established to discriminate the origin of ginger. The pungent bioactive principles of ginger, gingerols and six other gingerol-related compounds were determined and identified. Their variations in HPLC profiles create the characteristic pattern of each origin by employing similarity analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). As results, the ginger profiles tended to be grouped and separated on the basis of the geographical closeness of the countries of origin. An effective mathematical model with high predictive ability was obtained and chemical markers for each origin were also identified as the characteristic active compounds to differentiate the ginger origin. The proposed method is useful for quality control of ginger in case of origin labelling and to assess food authenticity issues.