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A powerful methodological approach combining headspace solid phase microextraction, mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis for profiling the volatile metabolomic pattern of beer starting raw materials
- Gonçalves, João L., Figueira, José A., Rodrigues, Fátima P., Ornelas, Laura P., Branco, Ricardo N., Silva, Catarina L., Câmara, José S.
- Food chemistry 2014 v.160 pp. 266-280
- alcohols, aldehydes, barley, beers, coatings, corn, corn oil, desorption, dimethyl sulfide, essential oils, esters, fatty acids, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, headspace analysis, isomerization, ketones, metabolites, metabolomics, monoterpenoids, multivariate analysis, nitrogen compounds, pellets, principal component analysis, raw materials, sesquiterpenoids, solid phase microextraction, sulfur
- The volatile metabolomic patterns from different raw materials commonly used in beer production, namely barley, corn and hop-derived products – such as hop pellets, hop essential oil from Saaz variety and tetra-hydro isomerized hop extract (tetra hop), were established using a suitable analytical procedure based on dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by thermal desorption gas chromatography–quadrupole mass spectrometry detection (GC–qMS). Some SPME extraction parameters were optimized. The best results, in terms of maximum signal recorded and number of isolated metabolites, were obtained with a 50/30μm DVB/CAR/PDMS coating fiber at 40°C for 30min. A set of 152 volatile metabolites comprising ketones (27), sesquiterpenes (26), monoterpenes (19), aliphatic esters (19), higher alcohols (15), aldehydes (11), furan compounds (11), aliphatic fatty acids (9), aliphatic hydrocarbons (8), sulphur compounds (5) and nitrogen compounds (2) were positively identified. Each raw material showed a specific volatile metabolomic profile. Monoterpenes in hop essential oil and corn, sesquiterpenes in hop pellets, ketones in tetra hop and aldehydes and sulphur compounds in barley were the predominant chemical families in the targeted beer raw materials. β-Myrcene was the most dominant volatile metabolite in hop essential oil, hop pellets and corn samples while, in barley, the predominant volatile metabolites were dimethyl sulphide and 3-methylbutanal and, in tetra hop, 6-methyl-2-pentanone and 4-methyl-2-pentanone. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed natural sample grouping among beer raw materials.