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Polyphenol extraction optimisation from Ceylon gooseberry (Dovyalis hebecarpa) pulp

Bochi, Vivian Caetano, Barcia, Milene Teixeira, Rodrigues, Daniele, Speroni, Caroline Sefrin, Giusti, M. Monica, Godoy, Helena Teixeira
Food chemistry 2014 v.164 pp. 347-354
Dovyalis hebecarpa, acetone, analytical methods, anthocyanins, ethanol, formic acid, freeze drying, multivariate analysis, phytopharmaceuticals, polyphenols, pulp, small fruits, solvents, Asia, Brazil
Originally from Asia, Dovyalis hebecarpa is a dark purple/red exotic berry now also produced in Brazil. However, no reports were found in the literature about phenolic extraction or characterisation of this berry. In this study we evaluate the extraction optimisation of anthocyanins and total phenolics in D. hebecarpa berries aiming at the development of a simple and mild analytical technique. Multivariate analysis was used to optimise the extraction variables (ethanol:water:acetone solvent proportions, times, and acid concentrations) at different levels. Acetone/water (20/80 v/v) gave the highest anthocyanin extraction yield, but pure water and different proportions of acetone/water or acetone/ethanol/water (with >50% of water) were also effective. Neither acid concentration nor time had a significant effect on extraction efficiency allowing to fix the recommended parameters at the lowest values tested (0.35% formic acid v/v, and 17.6min). Under optimised conditions, extraction efficiencies were increased by 31.5% and 11% for anthocyanin and total phenolics, respectively as compared to traditional methods that use more solvent and time. Thus, the optimised methodology increased yields being less hazardous and time consuming than traditional methods. Finally, freeze-dried D. hebecarpa showed high content of target phytochemicals (319mg/100g and 1421mg/100g of total anthocyanin and total phenolic content, respectively).