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In vitro bioaccessibility of β-carotene, Ca, Mg and Zn in landrace carrots (Daucus carota, L.)
- Zaccari, Fernanda, Cabrera, María Cristina, Ramos, Ana, Saadoun, Ali
- Food chemistry 2015 v.166 pp. 365-371
- Daucus carota, beta-carotene, bioavailability, calcium, carrots, color, cooking, cultivars, homogenization, landraces, magnesium, particle size, pulping, steaming, zinc, Brazil
- Four landrace carrots (“Becaria”, “CRS”, “González” and “Rodríguez”) and two marketable cultivars (Kuroda and Brasilia), raw and steamed, were characterised by the total content of β-carotene Ca, Mg and Zn, in vitro bioaccessibility and by colour and were evaluated to determine the effect of particle size in nutrient bioaccessibility. Steaming increased the content of β-carotene extracted from “CRS” and Brasilia (29% and 75%) and decreased the content of β-carotene extracted from “CRS” by 23% in “Rodríguez.” In addition, steaming caused a loss of Ca (21%) but did not change the amount of Mg and Zn. The bioaccessibility of β-carotene in raw and pulped carrots was very low (<0.5%). Furthermore, steaming and a smaller particle size increased the bioaccessibility of β-carotene by 3–16 times. Additionally, cooking increased the in vitro bioaccessibility of Ca and Zn but had no effect on Mg. Moreover, homogenisation increased the bioaccessibility by 20% in Ca, 17% in Mg, and 10% in Zn compared to pulping.