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In vitro bioaccessibility of β-carotene, Ca, Mg and Zn in landrace carrots (Daucus carota, L.)

Zaccari, Fernanda, Cabrera, María Cristina, Ramos, Ana, Saadoun, Ali
Food chemistry 2015 v.166 pp. 365-371
Daucus carota, beta-carotene, bioavailability, calcium, carrots, color, cooking, cultivars, homogenization, landraces, magnesium, particle size, pulping, steaming, zinc, Brazil
Four landrace carrots (“Becaria”, “CRS”, “González” and “Rodríguez”) and two marketable cultivars (Kuroda and Brasilia), raw and steamed, were characterised by the total content of β-carotene Ca, Mg and Zn, in vitro bioaccessibility and by colour and were evaluated to determine the effect of particle size in nutrient bioaccessibility. Steaming increased the content of β-carotene extracted from “CRS” and Brasilia (29% and 75%) and decreased the content of β-carotene extracted from “CRS” by 23% in “Rodríguez.” In addition, steaming caused a loss of Ca (21%) but did not change the amount of Mg and Zn. The bioaccessibility of β-carotene in raw and pulped carrots was very low (<0.5%). Furthermore, steaming and a smaller particle size increased the bioaccessibility of β-carotene by 3–16 times. Additionally, cooking increased the in vitro bioaccessibility of Ca and Zn but had no effect on Mg. Moreover, homogenisation increased the bioaccessibility by 20% in Ca, 17% in Mg, and 10% in Zn compared to pulping.