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Simulated gastrointestinal digestion, intestinal permeation and plasma protein interaction of white, green, and black tea polyphenols

Tenore, Gian Carlo, Campiglia, Pietro, Giannetti, Daniela, Novellino, Ettore
Food chemistry 2015 v.169 pp. 320-326
antioxidants, bioavailability, black tea, blood glucose, blood proteins, cholesterol, cholesterol metabolism, cultivars, digestion, epithelium, flavanols, functional foods, glucose, high density lipoprotein, intestines, polyphenols, processing stages, white tea
The gastrointestinal digestion, intestinal permeation, and plasma protein interaction of polyphenols from a single tea cultivar at different stages of processing (white, green, and black teas) were simulated. The salivary phase contained 74.8–99.5% of native polyphenols, suggesting potential bioavailability of significant amounts of antioxidants through the oral mucosal epithelium that might be gastric sensitive and/or poorly absorbed in the intestine. White tea had the highest content and provided the best intestinal bioaccessibility and bioavailability for catechins. Since most of native catechins were not absorbed, they were expected to accumulate in the intestinal lumen where a potential inhibition capacity of cellular glucose and cholesterol uptake was assumed. The permeated catechins (approximately, 2–15% of intestinal levels) significantly bound (about 37%) to plasma HDLs, suggesting a major role in cholesterol metabolism. White tea and its potential nutraceuticals could be effective in the regulation of plasma glucose and cholesterol levels.