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Changes in phytochemicals, anti-nutrients and antioxidant activity in leafy vegetables by microwave boiling with normal and 5% NaCl solution
- Singh, Shrawan, Swain, S., Singh, D.R., Salim, K.M., Nayak, Dipak, Roy, S. Dam
- Food chemistry 2015 v.176 pp. 244-253
- anthocyanins, antinutritional factors, antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid, boiling, carotenoids, cooking, food security, green leafy vegetables, nitrates, oxalates, phytic acid, phytopharmaceuticals, polyphenols, saponins, sodium chloride
- The present study investigated the changes in phytochemicals and antioxidant activities in 25 leafy vegetables with two common boiling practices viz., with 5% NaCl solution (BSW) and normal water (BNW) in a domestic microwave oven. Fresh samples (100g) were rich in polyphenols (58.8–296.9mg), tannin (402.0–519.4mg), flavonoids (148.9–614.4mg), carotenoids (69.0–786.3mg), anthocyanin (11.7–493.7mg) and ascorbic acid (245.0–314.2mg). Microwave boiling significantly (p<0.05) decreased/increased phytochemicals but none of the compounds followed same trend in all vegetables. Boiling process reduced anti-nutrients from fresh samples (FS) as observed for nitrate (4.5–73.6% by BSW and 22.5–98.8% by BNW); phytate (6.2–69.7% by BSW and 10.6–57.3% by BNW) and oxalate (14.7–88.9% by BSW and 14.5–87.3% by BNW) but saponin increased in 18 vegetables by BNW while 8 vegetables by BSW. The study revealed differential pattern of change in phytochemical matrix and anti-nutrients in vegetables by microwave boiling which will help in devising efficient cooking practices and contribute in health and nutritional security.