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Alkylresorcinol composition allows the differentiation of Triticum spp. having different degrees of ploidy

Ziegler, Jochen U., Steingass, Christof B., Longin, Carl Friedrich H., Würschum, Tobias, Carle, Reinhold, Schweiggert, Ralf Martin
Journal of cereal science 2015 v.65 pp. 244-251
Triticum aestivum subsp. spelta, Triticum monococcum subsp. monococcum, Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccon, clearcutting, diploidy, durum wheat, fungi, heritability, hexaploidy, minimum inhibitory concentration, pathogens, seeds, tetraploidy, whole grain flour
Total alkylresorcinol (AR) content and homologue composition were assessed in whole grain flours of 15 varieties each of bread wheat, durum, spelt, emmer, and einkorn grown in four different environments. Bread wheat (761 ± 92 μg/g DM) and spelt (743 ± 57 μg/g) belonging to the hexaploid species showed higher AR concentrations than the tetraploid durum (654 ± 48 μg/g, p < 0.05), while the concentrations found in the diploid einkorn (737 ± 91 μg/g) and the tetraploid emmer (697 ± 94 μg/g) did not significantly differ from the other species. The AR content showed a remarkable heritability and, thus, seemed to be mainly determined by genetic factors. If ARs were assumed to be deposited within a specific AR-rich layer of the kernel, AR levels of all varieties would easily surpass their minimal inhibitory concentrations against fungal pathogens within this barrier layer. Although the AR carrying a C21:0 side chain was the main homologue in all species, the levels of all AR homologues and their relative composition significantly differed between hexaploid (bread wheat and spelt), tetraploid (durum and emmer) and diploid (einkorn) species. Consequently, a clear-cut differentiation of Triticum species and derived whole grain flours according to their degrees of ploidy was established based on concentrations of saturated C17-, C19-, C21-, C23-, and C25-substituted ARs.