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Enhanced Egress of Intracellular Eimeria tenella Sporozoites by Splenic Lymphocytes from Coccidian-Infected Chickens

Dong, Xiaojuan, Abdelnabi, Ghada H., Lee, Sung H., Li, Guangxing, Jin, Hong, Lillehoj, Hyun S., Suo, Xun
INFECTION AND IMMUNITY 2011 v.79 no.8 pp. 3465
B-lymphocytes, Eimeria tenella, antibodies, chickens, coccidiosis, cytokines, host-parasite relationships, immunity, interferons, interleukin-2, kidney cells, poultry diseases, spleen, splenocytes, sporozoites, viability
Egress, which describes the mechanism that some intracellular parasites use to exit from parasitophorous vacuoles and host cells, plays a very important role in the parasite life cycle and is central to Eimeria propagation and pathogenesis. Despite the importance of egress in the intracellular parasite's life cycle, very little information is known on this process compared to other steps, e.g., invasion. The present study was conducted to investigate the interplay between the host adaptive immune system and Eimeria egression. Splenic lymphocytes or soluble immune factors were incubated with parasite-infected host cells for 3 or 5 h, and the percentage of egress was calculated according to an established formula. Viability of egressed parasites and host cells was tested using trypan blue exclusion and annexin V and propidium iodide staining, respectively. We found that premature egression of sporozoites from Eimeria tenella-infected primary chicken kidney cells or from chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells occurred when the cells were cocultured in vitro with spleen lymphocytes from E. tenella-infected chickens but not when they were cocultured with splenocytes from uninfected chickens. Eimeria-specific antibodies and cytokines (gamma interferon [IFN-γ], interleukin-2 [IL-2], and IL-15), derived from E. tenella-primed B and T lymphocytes, respectively, were capable of promoting premature egress of sporozoites from infected host cells. Both egressed parasites and host cells were viable, although the latter showed reduced reinvasion ability. These results suggest a novel, immune-mediated mechanism that the host exploits to interrupt the normal Eimeria life cycle in vivo and thereby block the release of mature parasites into the environment.