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A Response Surface Methodology study on the role of factors affecting growth and volatile phenol production by Brettanomyces bruxellensis ISA 2211 in wine

Chandra, M., Barata, A., Ferreira-Dias, S., Malfeito-Ferreira, M., Loureiro, V.
Food microbiology 2014 v.42 pp. 40-46
biomass, cell death, ethanol, glucose, pH, phenol, red wines, response surface methodology, sulfur dioxide
The present study was aimed at determining the effect of glucose, ethanol and sulphur dioxide on the growth and volatile phenol production by Brettanomyces bruxellensis in red wines using a response surface methodology approach. Sulphur dioxide proved to have a significant (p < 0.05) negative linear and quadratic effect on growth and 4-ethylphenol production. Concentrations of sulphur dioxide higher than 20 mg L−1, at pH 3.50, induced immediate loss of cell culturability under growth permissive levels of ethanol. Under high ethanol concentrations (14% v/v), the lag phase increased from 3 to 10 days, growth being fully arrested at 15% (v/v). Glucose up to 10 g L−1 was found to be a significant factor (quadratic level) in biomass increase under low ethanol (<12.5% v/v) and low sulphite concentrations. However, when cells were inactivated by sulphur dioxide and ethanol, glucose (up to 10 g L−1) did not prevent cell death. Production of more than 50 μg L−1 day−1 of 4-ethylphenol was only observed in the presence of high numbers (106 CFU mL−1) of culturable cells, being stimulated by increasing glucose concentrations.