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Strategies for the aeration of gluten-free bread – A review

Elgeti, Dana, Jekle, Mario, Becker, Thomas
Trends in food science & technology 2015 v.46 no.1 pp. 75-84
aeration, batters, bubbles, computed tomography, dough, gas production (biological), gluten-free foods, hydrocolloids, kneading, loaves, microorganisms, mixing, monitoring, raw materials, wheat
Deficient gas retention properties and consequent low loaf volume are major issues in the production of gluten-free bread. Owing to fundamental differences in medium properties of gluten-free and wheat dough, a strict adherence to traditional techniques is counter productive.The present study reviews analysis tools that enable the monitoring of single bubbles as well as the aeration state with regard to spatial and temporal resolution. Various methods used for the aeration of conventional dough and batter are evaluated and compared with those used for gluten-free dough production. Promising strategies and processing parameters that might improve the incorporation and stabilization of gas in gluten-free dough are presented.The substrate availability of gluten-free raw materials plays an important role for biological gas production through microorganisms, which can additionally improve the gas retention capacity by synthesizing hydrocolloids. Moreover, the deficient volume of gluten-free dough might be substantially improved by optimizing mechanical aeration via beating. High-speed mixing can provide a homogeneous distribution of small gas bubbles. Computed tomography is the method of choice to monitor gas bubbles if structure-conserving preparations and sufficient resolution are provided. To replace the traditional kneading stage, processing adaptions should provide maximum gas entrapment by mixing.