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Ultrasound applications for the extraction, identification and delivery of food proteins and bioactive peptides

Kadam, Shekhar U., Tiwari, Brijesh K., Álvarez, Carlos, O'Donnell, Colm P.
Trends in food science & technology 2015 v.46 no.1 pp. 60-67
animals, bioactive properties, bioavailability, biodegradability, dietary protein, digestion, drugs, encapsulation, foods, half life, ileum, molecular weight, peptides, polymers, proteins
Bioactive peptides in foods can be obtained from plants, animal or marine sources. Bioactive peptides possess diverse biological activities such as opiate, antithrombotic, anti-hypertensive, immunomodulating, antilipemic, osteoprotective, antioxidative, antimicrobial, ileum contracting, anticariogenic and growth promoting properties. In general, peptide based drugs are physically and chemically unstable, have short in vivo half-lives and have low oral bioavailability. Ultrasound which is a novel, robust, green and rapid technology suitable for scale up, can enhance the efficiency of protein digestion, extraction, production and drug delivery of bioactive peptides. Ultrasound principally acts by generating bubble cavitation in the biological matrix. It has been extensively reported for extraction of proteins and peptides from natural products facilitating higher yields and rates of extraction. Ultrasound assisted encapsulation of peptide based drugs with biodegradable polymers can improve stability and bioavailability. Moreover, in sonophoresis applications, low-frequency ultrasound can be used to transport high molecular weight peptide drugs. This review paper summarizes key bioactive peptides, sources, structure, function and application of ultrasound for production and drug delivery of peptides.