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Plant extract synthesized silver nanoparticles: An ongoing source of novel biocompatible materials

Rajan, Ramachandran, Chandran, Krishnaraj, Harper, Stacey L., Yun, Soon-Il, Kalaichelvan, P. Thangavel
Industrial crops and products 2015 v.70 pp. 356-373
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, anti-infective properties, antineoplastic activity, antioxidants, ascorbic acid, biocompatibility, biocompatible materials, citric acid, drug resistance, ellagic acid, environmental impact, epicatechin, gallic acid, green chemistry, humans, metabolites, nanosilver, neoplasms, pathogens, plant extracts, retinoic acid, sorbic acid, spectral analysis, yeasts
In view of its simplicity, low cost involvement, higher reducing potential, zero contamination and reduced or less environmental impact, the plant extract based green chemistry process has recently been emerged as one of the active areas of current nanobiotechnological research. According to the Pubmed data, more than half of the research articles published during 2009–2013 have focused the phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. The reaction parameters employed in the plant mediated synthesis protocol have been optimized to achieve better yield, controlled size, shape, and greater particle stability. With the aid of FT-IR spectral data, a few plant metabolites such as apiin, ascorbic acid, citric acid, cyclic peptide, ellagic acid, epicatechin gallate, euphol, galangin, gallic acid, phyllanthin, pinocembrin, retinoic acid, sorbic acid, and theaflavin have been identified as responsible compounds for the biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Due to their greater biocompatibility, scalability, and applicability, the plant extract derived silver nanoparticles have shown superior antioxidant and anticancer properties besides having pinnacle antimicrobial activities against clinically isolated pathogens including multi drug resistant and yeast pathogens. Thus, phytonanotechnology has opened up new avenues in treating and/or controlling various dreadful diseases of humans such as cancer. The present review gives an updated knowledge on plant extract synthesized silver nanoparticles with particular emphasis to their applications such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities.