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Biochemical and microbial characterization of cassava inocula from the three main attieke production zones in Côte d'Ivoire

Djeni, N.T., Bouatenin, K.M.J.-P., Assohoun, N.M.C., Toka, D.M., Menan, E.H., Dousset, X., Dje, K.M.
Food control 2015 v.50 pp. 133-140
Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Pediococcus acidilactici, Weissella cibaria, cassava, databases, fermentation, inoculum, lactic acid bacteria, nationalities and ethnic groups, starter cultures, Cote d'Ivoire
Attieke is one of the few products whose fermentation is not spontaneous but involves the use of an inoculum. In Côte d'Ivoire, country of attieke origin, as various traditional inocula are used for attieke production, the present study on inocula from the three main attieke producers ethnic groups (Adjoukrou, Alladjan and Ebrié) was performed to establish a scientific database of characteristics of these inocula, in order to highlight the way in which these inocula could contribute to set the diversity in quality of attieke produced and sold in Côte d'Ivoire. Thus, the biochemical and microbial characteristics of 54 traditional inocula were monitored and lactic acid bacteria involved in the fermentation were investigated using morphological, biochemical as well as molecular approaches to identify the predominant species. Results showed that traditional cassava inocula used to produce the 3 main types of attieke in Côte d'Ivoire differ quantitatively and qualitatively in their biochemical and microbial composition. Representative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were grouped into 4 clusters included 5 species: Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum and Weissella cibaria. Inocula from Adjoukrou group were dominated by Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Pediococcus acidilactici, while L. fermentum was preponderant in inocula from Alladjan group and L. plantarum in those from Ebrie group. Weissella cibaria was specific to inocula from Ebrie group. The dominating LAB strains can be potential starter cultures for cassava fermentation during the production of each type of attieke.