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Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effect of in vitro digested cookies baked using different types of flours and fermentation methods
- Valli, Veronica, Danesi, Francesca, Gianotti, Andrea, Di Nunzio, Mattia, Taneyo Saa, Danielle Laure, Bordoni, Alessandra
- Food research international 2016 v.88 pp. 256-262
- anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, cookies, diet, durum wheat, experimental design, flour, food matrix, hepatocytes, in vitro digestion, lactic fermentation, risk reduction, whole grain foods, Italy, North America
- There is an increased amount of evidence showing that consumption of whole grains and whole-grain-based products is associated with a reduction of the risk of developing many diseases, due mainly to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of their components.In this study, cookies, baked using different types of flours and fermentation methods, were digested in vitro and supplemented to cultured liver cells. Three different flours (ancient KAMUT® khorasan wheat grown in North America, ancient khorasan wheat grown in Italy, and modern durum wheat) and two different types of fermentation (standard and lactic fermentation) were used. This experimental design allowed us to supplement cells with a real food part of the human diet, and to consider possible differences related to the food matrix (types of flour) and processing (methods of fermentation). Cells were supplemented with the bioaccessible fractions derived from cookies in vitro digestion. Although results herein reported highlight the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of all the supplementations, cookies made with khorasan flours appeared the most effective, particularly when the ancient grain was grown in North America under the KAMUT® brand. In light of the attempts to produce healthier food, this study underlines the importance of the type of grain to obtain baked products with an increased nutritional and functional value.