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Miocene–Pliocene speciation, introgression, and migration of Patis and Ptilagrostis (Poaceae: Stipeae)

Romaschenko, Konstantin, Garcia-Jacas, Nuria, Peterson, Paul M., Soreng, Robert J., Vilatersana, Roser, Susanna, Alfonso
Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 2014 v.70 pp. 244-259
Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Oryzopsis, Stipa, biogeography, genes, grasses, internal transcribed spacers, introgression, introns, nuclear genome, phylogeny, plastid DNA, East Asia, North America
Genetic interchange between American and Eurasian species is fundamental to our understanding of the biogeographical patterns, and we make a first attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary events in East Asia that lead to the origin and dispersal of two genera, Patis and Ptilagrostis. We conducted a molecular phylogenetic study of 78 species in the tribe Stipeae using four plastid DNA sequences (ndhF, rpl32-trnL, rps16-trnK, and rps16 intron) and two nuclear DNA sequences (ITS and At103). We use single copy nDNA gene At103 for the first time in the grasses to elucidate the evolutionary history among members of the Stipeae. Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Oryzopsis, Pappostipa, Patis, and Stipa are found to be of multiple origins. Our phylograms reveal conflicting positions for Ptilagrostis alpina and Pt. porteri that form a clade with Patis coreana, P. obtusa, and P. racemosa in the combined plastid tree but are aligned with other members of Ptilagrostis in the ITS tree. We hypothesize that Ptilagrostis still retains the nucleotype of an extinct genus which transited the Bering land bridge from American origins in the late Miocene (minimum 7.35–6.37mya) followed by hybridization and two plastid capture events with a Trikeraia-like taxon (7.96mya) and para-Patis (between 5.32 and 3.76mya). Ptilagrostis porteri and Patis racemosa then migrated to continental North America 1.7–2.9mya and 4.3–5.3mya, respectively.