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Cytokinin and the cell cycle

Schaller, G Eric, Street, Ian H, Kieber, Joseph J
Current opinion in plant biology 2014 v.21 pp. 7-15
cell proliferation, cytokinins, growth and development, mitosis, models, plant growth, plant hormones, roots, shoots, stem cells
The phytohormone cytokinin influences many aspects of plant growth and development, including a prominent role in the regulation of cell proliferation. How the cytokinin response pathway integrates into the machinery regulating progression through the cell cycle is only beginning to be appreciated. Cytokinin is generally considered to promote mitotic cell division in the shoot, but differentiation and transition to the endocycle in the root. Here we consider recent data on the inputs by which cytokinins positively and negatively regulate transitions through the cell cycle. Cytokinin positively regulates cell division and also serves a key role in establishing organization within shoot stem cell centers. Both auxin-dependent and auxin-independent mechanisms have been uncovered by which cytokinin stimulates the endocycle in roots. We conclude with a model that reconciles the opposing effects of cytokinin on shoot and root cell division.