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Differential and spatial regulation of the prophenoloxidase (proPO) and proPO-activating enzyme in cuticular melanization and innate immunity in Bombyx mori pupae

Zou, Feng Ming, Lee, Kwang Sik, Kim, Bo Yeon, Kim, Hong Ja, Gui, Zhong Zheng, Zhang, Guo Zheng, Guo, Xijie, Jin, Byung Rae
Journal of Asia-Pacific entomology 2015 v.18 no.4 pp. 757-764
Bombyx mori, immune response, innate immunity, melanization, prophenoloxidase, pupae, silkworms
Insect cuticular melanization is regulated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO)-activating system, which is also involved in the innate immune reaction. Here, we demonstrate how the differentiation of the proPO-activating system is regulated toward a cuticular melanization or innate immunity function in silkworm (Bombyx mori) pupae. Our results indicate that the differential and spatial regulation of key components, such as the proPO-activating enzyme and proPOs, primes the proPO-activating system for either cuticular melanization or innate immunity. This dual strategy for cuticular melanization in development and innate immunity upon infection demonstrates a two-pronged defense mechanism that is mediated by the priming of the proPO system.