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Multi-locus analysis of Giardia duodenalis from nonhuman primates kept in zoos in China: Geographical segregation and host-adaptation of assemblage B isolates

Karim, Md Robiul, Wang, Rongjun, Yu, Fuchang, Li, Tongyi, Dong, Haiju, Li, Dezhong, Zhang, Longxian, Li, Junqiang, Jian, Fuchun, Zhang, Sumei, Rume, Farzana Islam, Ning, Changshen, Xiao, Lihua
Infection, genetics, and evolution 2015 v.30 pp. 82-88
Giardia lamblia, Lemuridae, Saimiri, feces, genes, genotype, giardin protein, glutamate dehydrogenase, guinea pigs, humans, loci, molecular epidemiology, phylogeny, polymerase chain reaction, rabbits, ribosomal RNA, sequence analysis, triose-phosphate isomerase, zoo animals, zoos, China, Italy, Sweden
Only a few studies based on single locus characterization have been conducted on the molecular epidemiology of Giardia duodenalis in nonhuman primates (NHPs). The present study was conducted to examine the occurrence and genotype identity of G. duodenalis in NHPs based on multi-locus analysis of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and beta-giardin (bg) genes. Fecal specimens were collected from 496 animals of 36 NHP species kept in seven zoos in China and screened for G. duodenalis by tpi-based PCR. G. duodenalis was detected in 92 (18.6%) specimens from 18 NHP species, belonging to assemblage A (n=4) and B (n=88). In positive NHP species, the infection rates ranged from 4.8% to 100%. In tpi sequence analysis, the assemblage A included subtypes A1, A2 and one novel subtype. Multi-locus analysis of the tpi, gdh, and bg genes detected 11 (8 known and 3 new), 6 (3 known and 3 new) and 9 (2 known and 7 new) subtypes in 88, 47 and 35 isolates in assemblage B, respectively. Thirty-two assemblage B isolates with data at all three loci yielded 15 multi-locus genotypes (MLGs), including 2 known and 13 new MLGs. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of assemblage B showed that MLGs found here were genetically different from those of humans, NHPs, rabbit and guinea pig in Italy and Sweden. It further indicated that assemblage B isolates in ring-tailed lemurs and squirrel monkeys might be genetically different from those in other NHPs. These data suggest that NHPs are mainly infected with G. duodenalis assemblage B and there might be geographical segregation and host-adaptation in assemblage B in NHPs.