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Dietary proanthocyanidins modulate the rhythm of BMAL1 expression and induce RORα transactivation in HepG2 cells

Ribas-Latre, Aleix, Del Bas, Josep M., Baselga-Escudero, Laura, Casanova, Ester, Arola-Arnal, Anna, Salvadó, M. Josepa, Bladé, Cinta, Arola, Lluis
Journal of functional foods 2015 v.13 pp. 336-344
flavonoids, gene expression, genes, grape seeds, human cell lines, liver, melatonin, obesity, proanthocyanidins, rats, transcription (genetics), transcriptional activation
Proanthocyanidins (PAs), a flavonoid sub-class, alter the expression of clock genes in the liver of lean and obese rats. The present study aimed to determine whether PAs could modulate the 24-hour rhythmicity of clock gene expression and to identify the molecular mechanism through which PAs could adjust the clock system in HepG2 cells. The 24-hour rhythmicity of core clock (CLOCK and BMAL1) and clock-controlled (CRY, PER2, RORα, REV-ERBα) gene expression indicated that a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) shifted the acrophase of nearly all of them, but BMAL1 appeared as the most sensitive gene to GSPE. Specifically, GSPE increased BMAL1 expression strongly and very quickly. This effect was also reproduced by melatonin. The overexpression of BMAL1 was melatonin receptor 1 (MT1) dependent for melatonin but MT1 independent for GSPE. However, GSPE increased the transcriptional activity of RORα, suggesting that this nuclear receptor could be responsible for the modulation of BMAL1 by GSPE.