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Phytotoxicity of alkaloids, coumarins and flavonoids isolated from 11 species belonging to the Rutaceae and Meliaceae families

Nebo, Liliane, Varela, Rosa M., Molinillo, José M.G., Sampaio, Olívia M., Severino, Vanessa G.P., Cazal, Cristiane M., Fernandes, Maria Fátima das Graças, Fernandes, João B., Macías, Francisco A.
Phytochemistry letters 2014 v.8 pp. 226-232
Allium cepa, Lactuca sativa, Lepidium sativum, Meliaceae, Rutaceae, Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicum, alkaloids, allelochemicals, allelopathy, bioassays, coleoptiles, flavonoids, herbicides, lettuce, onions, phytotoxicity, psoralen, secondary metabolites, tomatoes, wheat
Meliaceae and Rutaceae families are known for the high diversity of their secondary metabolites, which include many groups that represent a rich source of structural diversity, and are good candidates as sources of allelochemicals that could be useful in agriculture. In the work described here the bioactivity profiles were evaluated for 3 alkaloids (1–3), 12 coumarins (4–15), 2 phenylpropanoic acid derivatives (16 and 17) and 14 flavonoids (18–31) from 11 species belonging to the Meliaceae and Rutaceae families. All compounds were tested in the wheat coleoptile bioassay and those that showed the highest activities were tested on the STS (Standard Target Species) Lepidium sativum (cress), Lactuca sativa (lettuce), Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), and Allium cepa (onion).Most of the isolated compounds showed phytotoxic activity and graveoline (3), psoralen (8), and flavone (18) were the most active, with bioactivity levels similar to that of the commercial herbicide Logran®. The results indicate that these compounds could be involved as semiochemicals in the allelopathic interactions of these plant species.