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Inducing secondary metabolite production by the soil-dwelling fungus Aspergillus terreus through bacterial co-culture

Chen, Huiqin, Daletos, Georgios, Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed S., Thomy, Dhana, Dai, Haofu, Brötz-Oesterhelt, Heike, Lin, Wenhan, Proksch, Peter
Phytochemistry letters 2015 v.12 pp. 35-41
Aspergillus terreus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptomyces coelicolor, Streptomyces lividans, anthranilic acid, coculture, cytotoxicity, fungi, lakes, lymphoma, mice, minimum inhibitory concentration, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, rice, secondary metabolites, sediments, Egypt
The soil-dwelling fungus Aspergillus terreus was isolated from sediment collected from the lake of Wadi EI Natrun in Egypt. Co-cultivation of A. terreus with the bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus on solid rice medium resulted in an up to 34-fold increase in the accumulation of constitutively present fungal natural products (4–15) compared to axenic cultures of A. terreus. The fungal products included two new butyrolactone derivatives, isobutyrolactone II (1) and 4-O-demethylisobutyrolactone II (2), together with the known N-(carboxymethyl)anthranilic acid (3) that were not present in axenic fungal controls and were only detected during co-cultivation with B. subtilis or with B. cereus. The structures of all compounds were unambiguously elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and by HRESIMS measurements, as well as by comparison with the literature. In a second set of experiments, A. terreus was co-cultured with Streptomyces lividans and with Streptomyces coelicolor. These co-cultivation experiments failed to induce fungal natural product accumulation in contrast to co-cultures with Bacillus sp. Compounds 5 and 14 showed weak inhibition of B. cereus with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 64μg/mL, whereas only 8 showed moderate cytotoxicity against the murine lymphoma (L5178Y) cell line with inhibition of 80% at a dose of 10μg/mL.