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Mitogenome sequence variation in migratory and stationary ecotypes of North-east Atlantic cod

Karlsen, Bård O., Emblem, Åse, Jørgensen, Tor E., Klingan, Kevin A., Nordeide, Jarle T., Moum, Truls, Johansen, Steinar D.
Marine genomics 2014 v.15 pp. 103-108
Gadus morhua, data collection, ecotypes, genes, genomics, high-throughput nucleotide sequencing, migratory behavior, mitochondria, mitochondrial genome, nuclear genome, nucleotide sequences, reproductive isolation, sequence diversity, single nucleotide polymorphism, Atlantic Ocean
Sequencing of mitochondrial gene fragments from specimens representing a wide range of geographical locations has indicated limited population structuring in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). We recently performed whole genome analysis based on next-generation sequencing of two pooled ecotype samples representing offshore migratory and inshore stationary cod from the North-east Atlantic Ocean. Here we report molecular features and variability of the 16.7kb mitogenome component that was collected from the datasets. These sequences represented more than 25 times coverage of each individual and more than 1100 times coverage of each ecotype sample. We estimated the mitogenome to have evolved 14 times more rapidly than the nuclear genome. Among the 365 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites identified, 121 were shared between ecotypes, and 151 and 93 were private within the migratory and stationary cod, respectively. We found 323 SNPs to be located in protein coding genes, of which 29 were non-synonymous. One synonymous site in ND2 was likely to be under positive selection. FST measurements indicated weak differentiation in ND1 and ND2 between ecotypes. We conclude that the Atlantic cod mitogenome and the nuclear genome apparently evolved by distinct evolutionary constraints, and that the reproductive isolation observed from whole genome analysis was not visible in the mtDNA sequences.