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Temporal variations in runoff and soil loss in relation to soil conservation practices in catchments in Shiwaliks of lower Himalayas
- Kukal, S.S., Bawa, S.S.
- International soil and water conservation research 2013 v.1 no.2 pp. 19-25
- conservation practices, ecosystems, engineering, indigenous species, planting, runoff, soil, soil conservation, temporal variation, watersheds
- The soil conservation strategies adopted in the catchments of Shiwaliks, the most fragile region in the Himalayan ecosystem, failed to serve their purpose after a few years of their execution. A study was carried out in four differentially-treated catchments to monitor the variation in runoff and soil loss. The treatments imposed during 1988 included fencing,planting native vegetation and engineering structures in catchment I ; planting native vegetation and fencing in catchment II ; fencing alone in catchment III in addition to an untreated catchment IV. The soil loss during the initial years (1989 – 1995) of imposition of the treatments was lowest (25. 2tha-1) in catchment I, treated to the maximum extent and highest (43. 3tha -1) in untreated catchment IV. During the later period (1996 – 2006) the trends reversed, i. e., catchment IV recorded the lowest (14. 1tha-1) soil loss whereas catchment I recorded the highest (23. 4tha-1) soil loss despite the fact that there was no change in the status of soil conservation or the characteristics of the catchments. The runoff was 71% higher in untreated catchment than in treated catchments initially and this difference decreased to 27% during the later period.