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Race/Ethnicity and Income in Relation to the Home Food Environment in US Youth Aged 6 to 19 Years
- Masters, Melissa A., Stanek Krogstrand, Kaye L., Eskridge, Kent M., Albrecht, Julie A.
- Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 2014 v.114 no.10 pp. 1533-1543
- income, cooked foods, eating habits, fruits, poverty, snacks, least squares, environmental factors, food availability, Whites, milk, youth, Blacks, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, cross-sectional studies, United States
- The home food environment is complex and has the potential to influence dietary habit development in young people. Several factors may influence the home food environment, including income and race/ethnicity.To examine the relationship of income and race/ethnicity with three home food environment factors (ie, food availability frequency, family meal patterns [frequency of family and home cooked meals], and family food expenditures).A cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).A total of 5,096 youth aged 6 to 19 years from a nationally representative sample of US individuals participating in NHANES 2007-10.Prevalence of food availability frequency was assessed for the entire sample, race/ethnicity, poverty income ratio (PIR), and race/ethnicity stratified by PIR. Mean values of family meal patterns and food expenditures were calculated based on race/ethnicity, PIR, and race/ethnicity stratified by PIR using analysis of variance and least squares means. Tests of main effects were used to assess differences in food availability prevalence and mean values of family meal patterns and food expenditures.Non-Hispanic whites had the highest prevalence of salty snacks (51.1%±1.5%) and fat-free/low-fat milk (39.2%±1.7%) always available. High-income homes had the highest prevalence of fruits (75.4%±2.4%) and fat-free/low-fat milk (38.4%±2.1%) always available. Differences were found for prevalence of food availability when race/ethnicity was stratified by PIR. Non-Hispanic blacks had the lowest prevalence of fat-free/low-fat milk always available across PIR groups. Differences in mean levels of family meal patterns and food expenditures were found for race/ethnicity, PIR, and race/ethnicity stratified by PIR.Race/ethnicity and PIR appear to influence food availability, family meal patterns, and family food expenditures in homes of youth. Knowledge of factors that influence the home food environment could assist in developing effective strategies to improve food environments for young people.