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Contribution to the risk characterization of ciguatoxins: LOAEL estimated from eight ciguatera fish poisoning events in Guadeloupe (French West Indies)

Hossen, Virginie, Soliño, Lucia, Leroy, Patricia, David, Eric, Velge, Pierre, Dragacci, Sylviane, Krys, Sophie, Flores Quintana, Harold, Diogène, Jorge
Environmental Research 2015 v.143 pp. 100-108
Food and Drug Administration, adverse effects, bioassays, body weight, ciguatera, fish, food safety, liquid chromatography, mice, poisoning, raw fish, risk characterization, tandem mass spectrometry, toxins, Caribbean, Guadeloupe, United States
From 2010 to 2012, 35 ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) events involving 87 individuals who consumed locally-caught fish were reported in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). For 12 of these events, the presence of ciguatoxins (CTXs) was indicated in meal remnants and in uncooked fish by the mouse bioassay (MBA). Caribbean ciguatoxins (C-CTXs) were confirmed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) analysis. Using a cell-based assay (CBA), and the only available standard Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1), the lowest toxins level detected in fish samples causing CFP was 0.022µgP-CTX-1 equivalent (eq.)·kg−1 fish. Epidemiological and consumption data were compiled for most of the individuals afflicted, and complete data for establishing the lowest observable adverse effects level (LOAEL) were obtained from 8 CFP events involving 21 individuals. Based on toxin intakes, the LOAEL was estimated at 4.2ng P-CTX-1eq./individual corresponding to−1 body weight (bw). Although based on limited data, these results are consistent with the conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) opinion which indicates that a level of 0.01µ−1 fish, regardless of source, should not exert effects in sensitive individuals when consuming a single meal. The calculated LOAEL is also consistent with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidance levels for CTXs (0.1µ−1 and 0.01µgP-CTX-1−1 fish).