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Time-integrated monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in urban and industrial wastewaters using a ceramic toximeter and the CALUX bioassay

Addeck, Amr, Croes, Kim, Van Langenhove, Kersten, Denison, Michael S., Elhamalawy, Ahmed, Elskens, Marc, Baeyens, Willy
Chemosphere 2014 v.94 pp. 27-35
bioassays, cages, ceramics, monitoring, pollution, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, pulp and paper mills, samplers, sediments, sludge, stainless steel, time-weighted average, wastewater, Egypt
The ceramic toximeter as a passive sampler in combination with the CALUX bioassay was utilized as a time-integrated pollution-assessment technique for dioxin-like PCDD/Fs in wastewaters. Toximeters filled with XCARB and enclosed in stainless steel cages were submerged in wastewater of Belbeis drainage-canal and EMAK paper-mill, located in Egypt, for 28days. Two samplers were removed every week from each site. Extracts from toximeters, from bottom-sediments, and from paper-mill sludge were analyzed by the CALUX. Results showed a regular increase in the amounts of PCDD/Fs trapped by the toximeters as sampling time increased. Time-weighted average concentrations (TWA) of PCDD/Fs in the wastewaters of the drainage-canal and paper-mill were 231 (214–281) and 26 (24.1–32.6) pg-BEQL−1, respectively. Compared to literature data, this means a high pollution level for the drainage-canal water, while the pollution level in the paper-mill wastewater is similar to that reported for other paper mills. The PCDD/Fs levels in the drainage-canal bottom-sediments and in the paper-mill sludge were 8.3 and 14.6pg-BEQg−1 dry-weight, at the lower end of internationally reported values in similar compartments. The sampling rate of the tested toximeters for dissolved PCDD/Fs was about 3.6mLd−1. Sediment/water partitioning coefficient logKd of PCDD/Fs in the drainage-canal and the paper-mill was 1.42 and 2.70 respectively. The organic-carbon normalized partition coefficient logKoc was 4.17 and 3.19 respectively, and is lower than the reported values for other sites.