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Occurrence, seasonal variation and inhalation exposure of atmospheric organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides in an urban community in South China
- Li, Huizhen, Ma, Hongzhu, Lydy, Michael J., You, Jing
- Chemosphere 2014 v.95 pp. 363-369
- air, air pollution, autumn, breathing, children, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, environmental fate, exposure duration, infants, inhalation exposure, pesticide application, pyrethrins, risk, seasonal variation, summer, toddlers, urban population, China
- The shift in pesticide usage patterns demands a better understanding of the occurrence, fate and exposure risk of atmospheric current-use pesticides (CUPs). Air samples collected in different seasons from an urban community in Guangzhou, China were analyzed to investigate seasonal variation, gas–particle partitioning and inhalation exposure of atmospheric organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides. Chlorpyrifos and eight pyrethroids were detected in the air samples and the total concentrations of the nine CUPs ranged from 150 to 3816pgm−3. Chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were the most dominant CUPs detected in the atmosphere, accounting for 68% and 15% of the total CUPs, respectively. Seasonal variation in concentration was observed for most CUPs, with peak concentrations occurring in summer and fall, which was consistent with their application patterns. Partitioning of chlorpyrifos between gas and particle phases was also seasonally-dependent, with more chlorpyrifos found in the gas phase in summer and fall. Additionally, gas–particle partitioning analysis suggested that chlorpyrifos might experience long-range transport. Evaluation of potential exposure from inhalation of atmospheric CUPs suggested that children, toddlers and infants had the highest exposure, but the risk quotients were low for all age groups when annual average concentrations were used as exposure metrics. Exposure risk was higher in summer and fall than the annual average level due to higher atmospheric pesticide concentrations, longer exposure times and more pesticides being in the gaseous form.