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Dynamics of transformation of the veterinary antibiotic sulfadiazine in two soils
- Sittig, Stephan, Kasteel, Roy, Groeneweg, Joost, Hofmann, Diana, Thiele, Björn, Köppchen, Stephan, Vereecken, Harry
- Chemosphere 2014 v.95 pp. 470-477
- antibiotics, livestock, manure spreading, prediction, soil, soil pollution, sorption, sulfadiazine
- Veterinary antibiotics administered to livestock can be unintentionally released into the environment, for example by the application of manure to soils. The fate of such antibiotics in soils is mostly determined by sorption and degradation processes, including transformation. There is a need to further examine the combined transformation and sorption behavior of these emerging pollutants in soils. Long-term batch sorption experiments with the 14C-radiolabeled antibiotic sulfadiazine enabled us to simultaneously trace the sorption and transformation dynamics of sulfadiazine. The parent compound and the transformation products were analyzed in the liquid phase and in the extracts from the solid phase after a sequential extraction. We found that of up to six transformation products were formed during degradation and that these products exhibited quite different dynamics in the two soils. Transformation products were formed rapidly and were extractable from the solid phase. We observed identical sets of the transformation products in both phases. The input concentration influenced the course of transformation of the parent substance. We present a detailed analysis including a mathematical description and derive regulatory kinetic endpoints for predicting environmental concentrations.