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Toxicity and bioconcentration of the pharmaceuticals moxifloxacin, rosuvastatin, and drospirenone to the unionid mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea
- Gilroy, Ève A.M., Klinck, Joel S., Campbell, Sheena D., McInnis, Rodney, Gillis, Patricia L., de Solla, Shane R.
- The Science of the total environment 2014 v.487 pp. 537-544
- Lampsilis, algae, aquatic environment, aquatic plants, bioaccumulation factor, drugs, freshwater, glutathione transferase, hemocytes, larvae, metabolites, moxifloxacin, mussels, oxygen consumption, personal care products, risk, toxicity, viability, wastewater treatment
- Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and their metabolites are continually released from wastewater treatment plants into the aquatic environment; however, their impact on aquatic biota is poorly understood. This study examined the toxicity and bioconcentration of three pharmaceuticals: moxifloxacin, rosuvastatin, and drospirenone to the unionid mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea. Effects of moxifloxacin and rosuvastatin were assessed through aqueous 21-d static-renewal tests using 2–year-old mussels, at 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100mg/L (nominal concentrations). Following exposure, survival, behavior, algal clearance rate, hemocyte viability and density, and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity were assessed. In addition, the acute (48h) toxicity of moxifloxacin (0–100mg/L) and drospirenone (0–3mg/L) to glochidia (larval mussels) were examined. In 21day exposures (2-yr old mussels), there were no differences in survival, oxygen consumption, hemocyte density, or GST activity over the range of concentrations examined; however, the proportion of time mussels spent filtering, and consequently the algal clearance rate, decreased at the higher moxifloxacin and rosuvastatin concentrations. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) ranged between 0.03 and 70 for moxifloxacin, and between 0 and 0.05 for rosuvastatin for exposures up to 100mg/L. The BCF for moxifloxacin at the highest exposure concentration was lower than that at the mid-level concentrations, likely due to decreased filtering activity at the higher exposure levels. The feeding rates declined and the amount of time the subadult mussels spent with their valves closed increased at the higher moxifloxacin and rosuvastatin exposures. Glochidia viability did not vary with exposure to drospirenone, but declined at the highest moxifloxacin concentration, resulting in an EC50 of 120mg/L. Overall, observed sublethal and lethal effects occurred at concentrations which exceed expected environmental concentrations through aqueous exposure, suggesting a low risk to freshwater mussels from these particular PPCPs.