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Multimedia fate modeling and risk assessment of a commonly used azole fungicide climbazole at the river basin scale in China
- Zhang, Qian-Qian, Ying, Guang-Guo, Chen, Zhi-Feng, Liu, You-Sheng, Liu, Wang-Rong, Zhao, Jian-Liang
- The Science of the total environment 2015 v.520 pp. 39-48
- active ingredients, air, basins, emissions, environmental fate, fungicides, inventories, market analysis, models, personal care products, risk, risk assessment, sediments, wastewater treatment, watersheds, China
- Climbazole is an antidandruff active ingredient commonly used in personal care products, but little is known about its environmental fate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fate of climbazole in water, sediment, soil and air compartments of the whole China by using a level III multimedia fugacity model. The usage of climbazole was calculated to be 345t in the whole China according to the market research data, and after wastewater treatment a total emission of 245t was discharged into the receiving environment with approximately 93% into the water compartment and 7% into the soil compartment. The developed fugacity model was successfully applied to estimate the contamination levels and mass inventories of climbazole in various environmental compartments of the river basins in China. The predicted environmental concentration ranges of climbazole were: 0.20–367ng/L in water, and 0.009–25.2ng/g dry weight in sediment. The highest concentration was mainly found in Haihe River basin and the lowest was in basins of Tibet and Xinjiang regions. The mass inventory of climbazole in the whole China was estimated to be 294t, with 6.79% in water, 83.7% in sediment, 9.49% in soil, and 0.002% in air. Preliminary risk assessment showed high risks in sediment posed by climbazole in 2 out of 58 basins in China. The medium risks in water and sediment were mostly concentrated in north China. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report on the emissions and multimedia fate of climbazole in the river basins of the whole China.