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Antioxidant responses of Annelids, Brassicaceae and Fabaceae to pollutants: A review

Bernard, F., Brulle, F., Dumez, S., Lemiere, S., Platel, A., Nesslany, F., Cuny, D., Deram, A., Vandenbulcke, F.
Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2015 v.114 pp. 273-303
Brassica oleracea, DNA, DNA repair, Eisenia fetida, Trifolium repens, abiotic stress, animals, antioxidants, cabbage, cadmium, databases, ecotoxicology, enzyme activity, gene expression, genes, genotoxicity, molecular biology, oxidative stress, pesticides, pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, reactive oxygen species, root nodules, soil, soil bacteria, trace elements, transcriptomics
Pollutants, such as Metal Trace Elements (MTEs) and organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides), can impact DNA structure of living organisms and thus generate damage. For instance, cadmium is a well-known genotoxic and mechanisms explaining its clastogenicity are mainly indirect: inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and/or induction of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Animal or vegetal cells use antioxidant defense systems to protect themselves against ROS produced during oxidative stress. Because tolerance of organisms depends, at least partially, on their ability to cope with ROS, the mechanisms of production and management of ROS were investigated a lot in Ecotoxicology as markers of biotic and abiotic stress. This was mainly done through the measurement of enzyme activities The present Review focuses on 3 test species living in close contact with soil that are often used in soil ecotoxicology: the worm Eisenia fetida, and two plant species, Trifolium repens (white clover) and Brassica oleracea (cabbage). E. fetida is a soil-dwelling organism commonly used for biomonitoring. T. repens is a symbiotic plant species which forms root nodule with soil bacteria, while B. oleracea is a non-symbiotic plant. In literature, some oxidative stress enzyme activities have already been measured in those species but such analyses do not allow distinction between individual enzyme involvements in oxidative stress. Gene expression studies would allow this distinction at the transcriptomic level.A literature review and a data search in molecular database were carried out on the basis of keywords in Scopus, in PubMed and in Genbankā„¢ for each species. Molecular data regarding E. fetida were already available in databases, but a lack of data regarding oxidative stress related genes was observed for T. repens and B. oleracea. By exploiting the conservation observed between species and using molecular biology techniques, we partially cloned missing candidates involved in oxidative stress and in metal detoxification in E. fetida, T. repens and B. oleracea.