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Quantification of Salmonella Typhi in water and sediments by molecular-beacon based qPCR

Rani, Neetika, Vajpayee, Poornima, Bhatti, Saurabh, Singh, Smriti, Shanker, Rishi, Gupta, Kailash Chand
Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2014 v.108 pp. 58-64
DNA, Salmonella Typhi, fever, genes, planning, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, rivers, sediments
A molecular-beacon based qPCR assay targeting staG gene was designed for specific detection and quantification of S. Typhi and validated against water and sediment samples collected from the river Ganga, Yamuna and their confluence on two days during Mahakumbha mela 2012–2013 (a) 18 December, 2012: before six major religious holy dips (Makar Sankranti, Paush Poornima, Mauni Amavasya, Basant Panchami, Maghi Poornima and Mahashivratri) (b) 10 February, 2013: after the holy dip was taken by over 3,00,00,000 devotees led by ascetics of Hindu sects at Sangam on ‘Mauni Amavasya’ (the most auspicious day of ritualistic mass bathing). The assay could detect linearly lowest 1 genomic equivalent per qPCR and is highly sensitive and selective for S. Typhi detection in presence of non specific DNA from other bacterial strains including S. Paratyphi A and S. Typhimurium. It has been observed that water and sediment samples exhibit S. Typhi. The mass holy dip by devotees significantly affected the water and sediment quality by enhancing the number of S. Typhi in the study area. The qPCR developed in the study might be helpful in planning the intervention and prevention strategies for control of enteric fever outbreaks in endemic regions.